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E.; many scholars give the precise date 782 (Oganesyan, 1973, p. 389; on finds from before the foundation of Erebuni, see Esayan, pp. It was one of the economic (see the foundation inscription for a granary; Salvini, 1971, p. The city, which lay in the region of ʾAza (on which see Salvini, 1967, p. Although the khan of Erevan, also known as the sirdar (Pers.
Impressive buildings, richly decorated, have been excavated in recent decades by archeologists from the former U. Consequently the Persians, Turks, and Russians kept in close contact with Ejmiatsin and courted its favor.
ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL Erevan is located on a site that has been occupied for millennia. Urartian fortress, E/Ir(e)b/puni (cuneiform URU ir/er-b/pu-ni; Salvini, 1969, p. The identification is confirmed by an Urartian cuneiform inscription found in September 1950 on the mound Arin-Berd (i.e., Ganli Tappa) on the southeastern edge of Erevan (König, 1957, p. The held a formal reception almost daily in the reception hall of his residence during which matters of local importance were discussed and cases involving Armenians were brought to trial (Haxthausen, ibid.). A capable administrator, Ḥosaynqolī Khan managed, during his twenty-year tenure, to restore Armenian confidence in the Persian administration and made the khanate a model province. THE MODERN CITY Situated at one of the lowest points on the Armenian Plateau at an altitude of 983 m above sea level, Erevan lies at the easternmost edge of the Ararat Plain at the juncture of the Getar and the Hrazdan (Zanga) Rivers, 21 km north of the latter’s juncture with the Arax and 51.50 km north of Mt. The city encompasses some 250 sq km with an elevation averaging just over 1,000 m.
Today it is generally acknowledged that the name is to be traced to that of an 8th-century B. The Armenian quarter of Kond was located in the northwestern quadrant of the city and here were located the four oldest of the ultimately ten Armenian churches of the city (Łafadaryan, passim). In 1808 Russian armies under General Gudovich made another attempt on the city; the fortress held, and the Russians left empty-handed. Made the center of their rule in Eastern Armenia by the Persians in the sixteenth century, Erevan has remained the capital of Eastern Armenia ever since.
The reference to Erevan in a manuscript of Moses of Khorene (cited by Akopyan, 1977, p. Stepʿannos Orbelean reported an inscription of the second half of the 9th century in which Erevan was mentioned; Grigor, prince of Siwnikʿ, was supposed to have installed it in a church in Makʿenocʿ on the southern shore of Lake Sevan (I, pp. In 789/1387 Erevan was destroyed: The number of those who died amounted to 500, according to Akopyan (1977, p. Under the rule of the Turkman Qara Qoyunlū and Āq Qoyunlū tribes Erevan became an important cultural center (cf. 39-40), but the political situation was very unstable, and the economy stagnated (cf. 38); in the early 16th century it was conquered first by the Safavid Shah Esmāʿīl I and then a few years later by the Ottoman sultans Selīm and Solaymān, successively. After securing the region, the Ottomans installed a number of governors in Erevan.
Samuel of Ani (12th century) mentioned a revolt in Erevan in the year 660 (p. In the early 10th century Yovhannēs Drasxanakertcʿi mentioned among the events of the 7th century a fight in the “village-town” () of Erevan (p. 719); the precise date of this occurrence remains uncertain. 129; the text of the inscription is not yet known). Judging from coin finds, Erevan was one of the leading urban centers in the Aras valley (cf. In the 14th century the number of inhabitants of Erevan was, according to Akopyan’s estimate (1977, p. A serious break in the development of the city resulted from the invasion of Tīmūr Lang at the end of the 14th century. During the reconstruction of the city in 1931 it was destroyed (cf. 26; for a detailed description of Erevan at the end of the 19th century, see Ališan, pp. In 1554, after taking Kars (Qārs) and Nakichevan (Naḵjavān), the Ottomans occupied Erevan, slaughtered large numbers of people, and burned part of the city.
In the north it bordered Georgia; to the east, the khanates of Ganja and Qarābāḡ, which stretched to the Caspian lowlands; to the south, the khanate of Naḵjavān and the province of Azerbaijan; and to the west, the Ottoman Empire. The fates of Erebuni and Teišebaïni were closely intertwined: A number of objects, for example, inscribed shields, found in Teišebaïni were originally made for Erebuni (König, 1957, p. The khanate covered an area of approximately 7,500 square miles. During the period of Persian rule, it was the practice of the shahs to appoint various khans as beglerbegī (governor) of the territory, thus creating an administrative center known as Čoḵūr Saʿd or the Khanate of Erevan. 60, arguing that the name Erebuni was changed into Erevuni and then into Erevan; Akopyan, 1968, p. Erevan was mentioned once, in the form Hērewan, in connection with the Arab conquest of Armenia; Sebeos reported in chapter 32 of his work (under August of the year 650 C. 109; on the controversial date, see Manandean, 1948, p. 26; for an assumed corruption in the manuscript tradition and consequent denial of the identification of this place name with present day Erevan, see Abgaryan, 1972; idem, in Sebeos, 1979, p. The most significant architectural monument of Erevan from before 1500 C. The Safavids and Ottomans battled each other for control of Erevan, and both restored the fortress periodically. At that time the monastery church of the apostles Paul (Połos) and Peter was already in existence, the oldest archeological evidence for Armenian Erevan (cf. 19) cannot be considered earlier, for, in this author’s opinion, Moses cannot have written in the 5th century. Like all of eastern Armenia, Erevan remained a bone of contention between the Ottomans and the Persians for many decades. One of them, Farhat Pasha (Farhād Pāšā), built a large new fortress in 1582-83 and made it the center of Ottoman defenses against Safavid attacks.